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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13989-14006; doi:10.3390/ijms160613989

Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Environment, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jianhua Zhu
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
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Abstract

Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq) resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP). Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII) suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA). View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; chlorophyll fluorescence; differential response; electron transport; herbicides; hydrogen peroxide; non-photochemical quenching; reactive oxygen species antioxidant enzymes; chlorophyll fluorescence; differential response; electron transport; herbicides; hydrogen peroxide; non-photochemical quenching; reactive oxygen species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Moustaka, J.; Tanou, G.; Adamakis, I.-D.; Eleftheriou, E.P.; Moustakas, M. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 13989-14006.

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