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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13850-13867; doi:10.3390/ijms160613850

Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

1
Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
3
Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
4
Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
5
Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicholas Delihas
Received: 18 April 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Genomics and Metabolomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2421 KB, uploaded 17 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus; metabolomics; metabolites; biomarkers; tetrapeptide Aspergillus; metabolomics; metabolites; biomarkers; tetrapeptide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.-C.; Tam, E.W.T.; Lo, K.-C.; Tsang, A.K.L.; Lau, C.C.Y.; To, K.K.W.; Chan, J.F.W.; Lam, C.-W.; Yuen, K.-Y.; Lau, S.K.P.; Woo, P.C.Y. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 13850-13867.

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