Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of N-Phenylphthalimide from Phthalanilic Acid: A Computational Study of the Mechanism
AbstractIn glacial acetic acid, phthalanilic acid and its monosubstituents are known to be converted to the corresponding phthalimides in relatively good yields. In this study, we computationally investigated the experimentally proposed two-step (addition-elimination or cyclization-dehydration) mechanism at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) level of theory for the unsubstituted phthalanilic acid, with an explicit acetic acid molecule included in the calculations. In the first step, a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate is formed by the nucleophilic attack of the amide nitrogen. The second step is dehydration of the intermediate to give N-phenylphthalimide. In agreement with experimental findings, the second step has been shown to be rate-determining. Most importantly, both of the steps are catalyzed by an acetic acid molecule, which acts both as proton donor and acceptor. The present findings, along with those from our previous studies, suggest that acetic acid and other carboxylic acids (in their undissociated forms) can catalyze intramolecular nucleophilic attacks by amide nitrogens and breakdown of the resulting tetrahedral intermediates, acting simultaneously as proton donor and acceptor. In other words, double proton transfers involving a carboxylic acid molecule can be part of an extensive bond reorganization process from cyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes. View Full-Text
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Takahashi, O.; Kirikoshi, R.; Manabe, N. Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of N-Phenylphthalimide from Phthalanilic Acid: A Computational Study of the Mechanism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 12174-12184.
Takahashi O, Kirikoshi R, Manabe N. Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of N-Phenylphthalimide from Phthalanilic Acid: A Computational Study of the Mechanism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(6):12174-12184.Chicago/Turabian Style
Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi. 2015. "Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of N-Phenylphthalimide from Phthalanilic Acid: A Computational Study of the Mechanism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 6: 12174-12184.