Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Immunohistochemical Analysis of Paraoxonases and Chemokines in Arteries of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11294-11322; doi:10.3390/ijms160511294

A Review of the Pathophysiology and Potential Biomarkers for Peripheral Artery Disease

1
The Vascular Biology Unit, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, College of Medicine & Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
2
Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, the Townsville Hospital, Townsville, QLD 4810, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes Haybaeck
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Peripheral Artery Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [981 KB, uploaded 18 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is due to the blockage of the arteries supplying blood to the lower limbs usually secondary to atherosclerosis. The most severe clinical manifestation of PAD is critical limb ischemia (CLI), which is associated with a risk of limb loss and mortality due to cardiovascular events. Currently CLI is mainly treated by surgical or endovascular revascularization, with few other treatments in routine clinical practice. There are a number of problems with current PAD management strategies, such as the difficulty in selecting the appropriate treatments for individual patients. Many patients undergo repeated attempts at revascularization surgery, but ultimately require an amputation. There is great interest in developing new methods to identify patients who are unlikely to benefit from revascularization and to improve management of patients unsuitable for surgery. Circulating biomarkers that predict the progression of PAD and the response to therapies could assist in the management of patients. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of PAD and examines the association between circulating biomarkers and PAD presence, severity and prognosis. While some currently identified circulating markers show promise, further larger studies focused on the clinical value of the biomarkers over existing risk predictors are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral artery disease; critical limb ischemia; biomarkers; angiogenesis; arteriogenesis peripheral artery disease; critical limb ischemia; biomarkers; angiogenesis; arteriogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krishna, S.M.; Moxon, J.V.; Golledge, J. A Review of the Pathophysiology and Potential Biomarkers for Peripheral Artery Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 11294-11322.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top