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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11323-11338; doi:10.3390/ijms160511323

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Paraoxonases and Chemokines in Arteries of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

1
Biomedical Research Unit, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigacio Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Catalonia 43201, Spain
2
Service of Angiology, Vascular Surgery and Endosurgery, Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII, Institut d'Investigacio Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Catalonia 43005, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jonathan Golledge and Joseph V. Moxon
Received: 28 January 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Peripheral Artery Disease)
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Abstract

Oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins is implicated in the development of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). The paraoxonases (PON) are a group of antioxidant enzymes, termed PON1, PON2, and PON3 that protect lipoproteins and cells from peroxidation and, as such, may be involved in protection against the atherosclerosis process. PON1 inhibits the production of chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in endothelial cells incubated with oxidized lipoproteins. PON1 and CCL2 are ubiquitously distributed in tissues, and this suggests a joint localization and combined systemic effect. The aim of the present study has been to analyze the quantitative immunohistochemical localization of PON1, PON3, CCL2 and CCL2 receptors in a series of patients with severe PAD. Portions of femoral and/or popliteal arteries from 66 patients with PAD were obtained during surgical procedures for infra-inguinal limb revascularization. We used eight normal arteries from donors as controls. PON1 and PON3, CCL2 and the chemokine-binding protein 2, and Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor, were increased in PAD patients. There were no significant changes in C–C chemokine receptor type 2. Our findings suggest that paraoxonases and chemokines play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in peripheral artery disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: CCL2; chemokine receptors; chemokines; immunohistochemistry; paraoxonases CCL2; chemokine receptors; chemokines; immunohistochemistry; paraoxonases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hernández-Aguilera, A.; Sepúlveda, J.; Rodríguez-Gallego, E.; Guirro, M.; García-Heredia, A.; Cabré, N.; Luciano-Mateo, F.; Fort-Gallifa, I.; Martín-Paredero, V.; Joven, J.; Camps, J. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Paraoxonases and Chemokines in Arteries of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 11323-11338.

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