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The Need for Translational Research to Advance Peripheral Artery Disease Management
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 11131-11177; doi:10.3390/ijms160511131

Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

1
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 206 S. Martin Jischke Drive, Room 3025, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
4
School of Sciences, Neuroscience, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jonathan Golledge and Joseph V. Moxon
Received: 15 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Peripheral Artery Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8182 KB, uploaded 18 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic. View Full-Text
Keywords: peripheral artery disease; aneurysm; atherosclerosis; ischemia; stroke; small animal model; ultrasound; magnetic resonance; computed tomography; optical imaging peripheral artery disease; aneurysm; atherosclerosis; ischemia; stroke; small animal model; ultrasound; magnetic resonance; computed tomography; optical imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, J.B.; Phillips, E.H.; Riggins, T.E.; Sangha, G.S.; Chakraborty, S.; Lee, J.Y.; Lycke, R.J.; Hernandez, C.L.; Soepriatna, A.H.; Thorne, B.R.H.; Yrineo, A.A.; Goergen, C.J. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 11131-11177.

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