Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives
AbstractCashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. View Full-Text
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Hamad, F.B.; Mubofu, E.B. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8569-8590.
Hamad FB, Mubofu EB. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(4):8569-8590.Chicago/Turabian Style
Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B. 2015. "Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 4: 8569-8590.