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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7159-7172; doi:10.3390/ijms16047159

A Double-Edged Sword: The Role of VEGF in Wound Repair and Chemoattraction of Opportunist Pathogens

BioNano Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Academic Editor: Francesc Cebrià
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
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Abstract

Wound healing is a complex process essential to repairing damaged tissues and preventing infection. Skin is the first line of defense, a chief physical barrier to microbe entry. Wound healing is a physical rebuilding process, but at the same time it is an inflammatory event. In turn, molecules for wound repair are secreted by fibroblasts and others present at the wound site. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical cytokine that exhibits chemoattractant properties, recruiting other immune cells to the site. Although generally beneficial, VEGF may also act as a chemoattractant for invading microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is problematic during wound infection due to its propensity to form biofilms and exhibit heightened antimicrobial resistance. Here, we explored the influence of VEGF gradients (in a microfluidic device wound model) on the motility and chemotactic properties of P. aeruginosa. At lower concentrations, VEGF had little effect on motility, but as the maximal concentration within the gradient increased, P. aeruginosa cells exhibited directed movement along the gradient. Our data provide evidence that while beneficial, VEGF, in excess, may aid colonization by P. aeruginosa. This highlights the necessity for the efficient resolution of inflammation. Understanding the dynamics of wound colonization may lead to new/enhanced therapeutics to hasten recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidics; wound bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; biofilms; chemotaxis; vascular endothelial growth factor microfluidics; wound bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; biofilms; chemotaxis; vascular endothelial growth factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Birkenhauer, E.; Neethirajan, S. A Double-Edged Sword: The Role of VEGF in Wound Repair and Chemoattraction of Opportunist Pathogens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7159-7172.

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