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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3722-3739; doi:10.3390/ijms16023722

Gender Differences in the VDR-FokI Polymorphism and Conventional Non-Genetic Risk Factors in Association with Lumbar Spine Pathologies in an Italian Case-Control Study

1
IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology—Vertebral surgery III—Scoliosis, IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute, via R. Galeazzi 4, 2016 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, P.le Kolbe 4, 33100 Udine, Italy
4
Vita e Salute San Raffaele University, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lu Qi
Received: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 9 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Nutrient Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [705 KB, uploaded 9 February 2015]

Abstract

Recently, the FokI polymorphism (rs2228570) in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and conventional risk factors were associated with spine disorders in the Italian population, but without gender analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-seven patients (149 males, 118 females) with lumbar spine disorders were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 254 (127 males, 127 females) asymptomatic controls were enrolled. The exposure to putative risk factors was evaluated and FokI polymorphism was detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). An association between lumbar spine pathologies and higher than average age; overweight; family history; lower leisure physical activity; smoking habit; higher number of hours/day exposure to vibration and more sedentary or intense physical job demand was observed in male patients. In contrast, in females, only higher age, overweight, family history and lower leisure physical activity were risk factors. FF genotype was a 2-fold risk factor to develop discopathies and/or osteochondrosis concomitant with disc herniation for both gender patients, while heterozygous Ff was protective for females only. In males only ff genotype was protective for discopathies and/or osteochondrosis and F allele was a 2-fold risk factor for hernia; discopathies; discopathies and/or osteochondrosis. Sex-related differences in voluntary behaviors, exposure to environmental risks and genetic background could be crucial for a gender-differentiated management of patients with spine disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D receptor; polymorphism; lumbar spine pathologies; risk factors; gender-related differences; Italian population vitamin D receptor; polymorphism; lumbar spine pathologies; risk factors; gender-related differences; Italian population
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Colombini, A.; Brayda-Bruno, M.; Ferino, L.; Lombardi, G.; Maione, V.; Banfi, G.; Cauci, S. Gender Differences in the VDR-FokI Polymorphism and Conventional Non-Genetic Risk Factors in Association with Lumbar Spine Pathologies in an Italian Case-Control Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 3722-3739.

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