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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7682-7706; doi:10.3390/ijms16047682

Interactive Effects of Dietary Lipid and Phenotypic Feed Efficiency on the Expression of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes Involved in the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Rainbow Trout

1
Department of Biology/Gus R. Douglass Institute, West Virginia State University, Institute, WV 25112, USA
2
USFWS, Abernathy Fish Technology Center, Longview, WA 98632, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lu Qi
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 7 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Nutrient Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [776 KB, uploaded 7 April 2015]

Abstract

A 2 × 3 factorial study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid level on the expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in electron transport chain in all-female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three practical diets with a fixed crude protein content of 40%, formulated to contain 10% (40/10), 20% (40/20) and 30% (40/30) dietary lipid, were fed to apparent satiety to triplicate groups of either low-feed efficient (F120; 217.66 ± 2.24 g initial average mass) or high-feed efficient (F136; 205.47 ± 1.27 g) full-sib families of fish, twice per day, for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, the results showed that there is an interactive effect of the dietary lipid levels and the phenotypic feed efficiency (growth rate and feed efficiency) on the expression of the mitochondrial genes nd1 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1), cytb (Cytochrome b), cox1 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1), cox2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunits 2) and atp6 (ATP synthase subunit 6) and nuclear genes ucp2α (uncoupling proteins 2 alpha), ucp2β (uncoupling proteins 2 beta), pparα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha), pparβ (peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor beta) and ppargc1α (proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha) in fish liver, intestine and muscle, except on ppargc1α in the muscle which was affected by the diet and the family separately. Also, the results revealed that the expression of mitochondrial genes is associated with that of nuclear genes involved in electron transport chain in fish liver, intestine and muscle. Furthermore, this work showed that the expression of mitochondrial genes parallels with the expression of genes encoding uncoupling proteins (UCP) in the liver and the intestine of rainbow trout. This study for the first time presents the molecular basis of the effects of dietary lipid level on mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport chain in fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary lipid; fish family; gene expression; mitochondria; rainbow trout dietary lipid; fish family; gene expression; mitochondria; rainbow trout
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Eya, J.C.; Ukwuaba, V.O.; Yossa, R.; Gannam, A.L. Interactive Effects of Dietary Lipid and Phenotypic Feed Efficiency on the Expression of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes Involved in the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Rainbow Trout. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7682-7706.

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