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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2320-2351; doi:10.3390/ijms16022320

Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis

Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ritva Tikkanen
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells 2014)
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Abstract

Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: signalling; cyclic nucleotides; cyclic guanosine monophosphate; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; kidney fibrosis signalling; cyclic nucleotides; cyclic guanosine monophosphate; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; kidney fibrosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schinner, E.; Wetzl, V.; Schlossmann, J. Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 2320-2351.

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