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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29554-29573; doi:10.3390/ijms161226190

Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Centre of Excellence in Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, School of Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup 6027, Australia
2
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia
3
McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation, Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22, Nedlands 6009, Australia
Academic Editor: G. Jean Harry
Received: 7 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 10 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Chronic neurodegenerative diseases are now associated with obesity and diabetes and linked to the developing and developed world. Interests in healthy diets have escalated that may prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The global metabolic syndrome involves lipoprotein abnormalities and insulin resistance and is the major disorder for induction of neurological disease. The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on dyslipidemia and NAFLD indicate that the clearance and metabolism of fungal mycotoxins are linked to hypercholesterolemia and amyloid beta oligomers. LPS and mycotoxins are associated with membrane lipid disturbances with effects on cholesterol interacting proteins, lipoprotein metabolism, and membrane apo E/amyloid beta interactions relevant to hypercholesterolemia with close connections to neurological diseases. The influence of diet on mycotoxin metabolism has accelerated with the close association between mycotoxin contamination from agricultural products such as apple juice, grains, alcohol, and coffee. Cholesterol efflux in lipoproteins and membrane cholesterol are determined by LPS with involvement of mycotoxin on amyloid beta metabolism. Nutritional interventions such as diets low in fat/carbohydrate/cholesterol have become of interest with relevance to low absorption of lipophilic LPS and mycotoxin into lipoproteins with rapid metabolism of mycotoxin to the liver with the prevention of neurodegeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol; mycotoxin; amyloid beta; apolipoprotein E; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; Alzheimer’s disease; lipopolysaccarides; liver; brain cholesterol; mycotoxin; amyloid beta; apolipoprotein E; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; Alzheimer’s disease; lipopolysaccarides; liver; brain
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Martins, I.J. Overnutrition Determines LPS Regulation of Mycotoxin Induced Neurotoxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 29554-29573.

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