Next Article in Journal
Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates
Next Article in Special Issue
Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia
Previous Article in Journal
Discovery and Current Status of Evaluation System of Bioavailability and Related Pharmaceutical Technologies for Traditional Chinese Medicines—Flos Lonicerae Japonicae—Fructus Forsythiae Herb Couples as an Example
Previous Article in Special Issue
Therapeutic Targets for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Emerging from Animal Models with Perinatal Immune Activation
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28841-28869; doi:10.3390/ijms161226136

The Historical Development of Immunoendocrine Concepts of Psychiatric Disorders and Their Therapy

1
Archives for the History of Psychiatry in Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103, Germany
2
Department of Mental Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart TAS 7005, Australia
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103, Germany
4
Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenji Hashimoto
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5511 KB, uploaded 4 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Relationships between the central nervous, immune and endocrine systems are a focus of psychiatric research, particularly in depression and schizophrenia. The field has long antecedents. Observed phenomena attributable to these relationships date back to the Neolithic era. Immunoendocrine theories in the broadest sense are recorded in antiquity. In the 19th century, Kraepelin and Wagner-Jauregg reported pioneering clinical observations in psychiatric patients. Von Basedow, Addison and Cushing described psychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from endocrine diseases. The 20th century opened with the identification of hormones, the first, adrenaline, chemically isolated independently by Aldrich und Takamine in 1901. Berson and Yalow developed the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique in 1959 making it possible to measure levels of hormones and cytokines. These developments have enabled great strides in psychoimmunoendocrinology. Contemporary research is investigating diagnostic and therapeutic applications of these concepts, for example by identifying biomarkers within the endocrine and immune systems and by synthesizing and testing drugs that modulate these systems and show antidepressant or antipsychotic properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune system; cytokines; hormones; depression; schizophrenia; history of psychiatry immune system; cytokines; hormones; depression; schizophrenia; history of psychiatry
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Steinberg, H.; Kirkby, K.C.; Himmerich, H. The Historical Development of Immunoendocrine Concepts of Psychiatric Disorders and Their Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 28841-28869.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top