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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26927-26935; doi:10.3390/ijms161126003

Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

1,†
,
1,†
,
2
,
1
,
3,* and 1,*
1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Co-Innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China
2
Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China
3
Department of Pediatrics, the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kotb Abdelmohsen
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1020 KB, uploaded 11 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Calpain 3 (CAPN3), also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA) of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa) protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: Calpain 3 (CAPN3); gastrocnemius muscle; sciatic nerve injury; myoblast differentiation; rat Calpain 3 (CAPN3); gastrocnemius muscle; sciatic nerve injury; myoblast differentiation; rat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, R.; Yan, Y.; Yao, J.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Liu, M. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26927-26935.

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