Next Article in Journal
Identification of Arsenic Direct-Binding Proteins in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro
Previous Article in Journal
Single-Cell Isolation and Gene Analysis: Pitfalls and Possibilities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26850-26870; doi:10.3390/ijms161125988

Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula Andrade
Received: 19 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3941 KB, uploaded 10 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimycotic; benzaldehydes; cell wall integrity; chemosensitization; filamentous fungi; monoterpenoids; mycotoxins; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; signal transduction; synergism antimycotic; benzaldehydes; cell wall integrity; chemosensitization; filamentous fungi; monoterpenoids; mycotoxins; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; signal transduction; synergism
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.H.; Chan, K.L.; Mahoney, N. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26850-26870.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top