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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26582-26598; doi:10.3390/ijms161125964

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Plant Immunity—At the Crossroad of Life and Death

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1300 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity)
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Abstract

Rapid and complex immune responses are induced in plants upon pathogen recognition. One form of plant defense response is a programmed burst in transcription and translation of pathogenesis-related proteins, of which many rely on ER processing. Interestingly, several ER stress marker genes are up-regulated during early stages of immune responses, suggesting that enhanced ER capacity is needed for immunity. Eukaryotic cells respond to ER stress through conserved signaling networks initiated by specific ER stress sensors tethered to the ER membrane. Depending on the nature of ER stress the cell prioritizes either survival or initiates programmed cell death (PCD). At present two plant ER stress sensors, bZIP28 and IRE1, have been described. Both sensor proteins are involved in ER stress-induced signaling, but only IRE1 has been additionally linked to immunity. A second branch of immune responses relies on PCD. In mammals, ER stress sensors are involved in activation of PCD, but it is unclear if plant ER stress sensors play a role in PCD. Nevertheless, some ER resident proteins have been linked to pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of plant ER stress signaling and its cross-talk with immune signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant immune responses; IRE1; programmed cell death; ER stress signaling; Arabidopsis plant immune responses; IRE1; programmed cell death; ER stress signaling; Arabidopsis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kørner, C.J.; Du, X.; Vollmer, M.E.; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, K.M. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Plant Immunity—At the Crossroad of Life and Death. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26582-26598.

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