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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 25711-25743; doi:10.3390/ijms161025711

Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in European Countries

Laboratory of Virology, “Lazzaro Spallanzani” National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Via Portuense 292, Rome 00149, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tatsuo Kanda
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [743 KB, uploaded 27 October 2015]

Abstract

Over the last decade the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (IgG) anti hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been increasing in European countries and shows significant variability among different geographical areas. In this review, we describe the serological data concerning the general population and risk groups in different European countries. Anti-HEV antibody prevalence ranged from 1.3% (blood donors in Italy) to 52% (blood donors in France). Various studies performed on risk groups in Denmark, Moldova and Sweden revealed that swine farmers have a high seroprevalence of HEV IgG (range 13%–51.1%), confirming that pigs represent an important risk factor in HEV infection in humans. Subtypes 3e,f are the main genotypes detected in the European population. Sporadic cases of autochthonous genotype 4 have been described in Spain, France, and Italy. Although most HEV infections are subclinical, in immune-suppressed and transplant patients they could provoke chronic infection. Fulminant hepatitis has rarely been observed and it was related to genotype 3. Interferon and ribavirin treatment was seen to represent the most promising therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E virus; genotype; autochthonous; risk group hepatitis E virus; genotype; autochthonous; risk group
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lapa, D.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Garbuglia, A.R. Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in European Countries. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 25711-25743.

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