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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24417-24450; doi:10.3390/ijms161024417

In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation and Quantification of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

1
Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, 2000 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA
2
Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, 5050 Percival Stern Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
3
Department of Immunology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 7455 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77054, USA
4
Department of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane avenue, SL-42, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuping Bao and Anna Cristina S. Samia
Received: 27 July 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

Increasing biomedical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in academic and commercial settings have alarmed the scientific community about the safety and assessment of toxicity profiles of IONPs. The great amount of diversity found in the cytotoxic measurements of IONPs points toward the necessity of careful characterization and quantification of IONPs. The present document discusses the major developments related to in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of IONPs and its relationship with the physicochemical parameters of IONPs. Major discussion is included on the current spectrophotometric and imaging based techniques used for quantifying, and studying the clearance and biodistribution of IONPs. Several invasive and non-invasive quantification techniques along with the pitfalls are discussed in detail. Finally, critical guidelines are provided to optimize the design of IONPs to minimize the toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxicity; quantification; iron oxide nanoparticles; physicochemical properties toxicity; quantification; iron oxide nanoparticles; physicochemical properties
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Patil, U.S.; Adireddy, S.; Jaiswal, A.; Mandava, S.; Lee, B.R.; Chrisey, D.B. In Vitro/In Vivo Toxicity Evaluation and Quantification of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24417-24450.

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