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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24276-24294; doi:10.3390/ijms161024276

Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C

1
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Udine, via delle Scienze 208, 33100 Udine, Italy
2
Albert Katz International School, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 84990 Sede Boqer, Israel
3
The French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands (FAAB), the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 84990 Sede Boqer, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ute Roessner
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences)
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Abstract

Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: grapevine; Vitis vinifera; heat; temperature; metabolite profiling; metabolism; plant physiology; network analysis grapevine; Vitis vinifera; heat; temperature; metabolite profiling; metabolism; plant physiology; network analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hochberg, U.; Batushansky, A.; Degu, A.; Rachmilevitch, S.; Fait, A. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24276-24294.

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