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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1066-1095; doi:10.3390/ijms16011066

Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation

Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medcine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Cologne 50933, Germany
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Academic Editor: Jens Schlossmann
Received: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells 2014)
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Abstract

Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca2+ is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca2+ regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca2+-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca2+ ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca2+ ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca2+-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; excitation-contraction coupling; ryanodine receptor; sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulumcalcium ATPase; exercise; skeletal muscle; fiber type; protein turnover; calcineurin; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α calcium; excitation-contraction coupling; ryanodine receptor; sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulumcalcium ATPase; exercise; skeletal muscle; fiber type; protein turnover; calcineurin; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 α
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gehlert, S.; Bloch, W.; Suhr, F. Ca2+-Dependent Regulations and Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: From Electro-Mechanical Coupling to Adaptation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 1066-1095.

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