Next Article in Journal
Adoptive Immunotherapy Strategies with Cytokine-Induced Killer (CIK) Cells in the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies
Previous Article in Journal
Sirt3 Protects Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress via Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+ and Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14610-14631; doi:10.3390/ijms150814610

The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides

Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology (SYNMIKRO), Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse-4, 35032 Marburg, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5955 KB, uploaded 21 August 2014]   |  


In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The essential peptide bond-forming catalysts responsible for the initial generation of a CDP-scaffold are referred to as cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) and use loaded tRNAs as their substrates. After initially discussing the phylogenetic distribution and organization of CDPS gene clusters, we will focus on structural and catalytic properties of CDPSs before turning to two recently characterized CDPS-dependent pathways that assemble modified CDPs. Finally, possible applications of CDPSs in the rational design of structural diversity using combinatorial biosynthesis will be discussed before concluding with a short outlook. View Full-Text
Keywords: tRNA-dependent biosynthesis; cyclic dipeptides; cyclodipeptide synthases; CDPS (cyclodipeptide synthases); diketopiperazines; nocazines; combinatorial biosynthesis tRNA-dependent biosynthesis; cyclic dipeptides; cyclodipeptide synthases; CDPS (cyclodipeptide synthases); diketopiperazines; nocazines; combinatorial biosynthesis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Giessen, T.W.; Marahiel, M.A. The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 14610-14631.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top