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Correction published on 5 September 2014, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 15766.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13514-13528; doi:10.3390/ijms150813514

Population Structure of the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an Invasive Species from the Americas, 60 Years after Invading China

1
Key Lab of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Agronomy and Plant Protection, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
2
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Though the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was introduced into China more than 60 years ago, the genetic diversity and structure of this exotic insect pest and virus vector have not been studied. To investigate the population genetic characteristics of this invasive species and to identify potential invasion routes, the genetic diversity and population structure of 17 collections of T. vaporariorum from nine provinces in China were analyzed using seven microsatellite loci. The results of the analyses indicated that the genetic diversity for the populations examined from the four provinces: Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai, was lower than the genetic diversity of populations from the five provinces: Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Liaoning, and Gansu. The T. vaporariorum populations analyzed in this study grouped as two distinct genetic clusters based on the analysis using STRUCTURE, whereas, 8 clusters were identified based on the BAPS analysis. Of the 136 genetic distance (Fst) values, 128 (94%) were associated with a significant exact test. However, there was no significant relationship between Fst and geographical distance. These results demonstrate that populations of T. vaporariorum in China exhibit significant genetic differentiation, indicating the likelihood that multiple introductions of T. vaporariorum into China have occurred. Also, the populations collected from the provinces of Jilin, Ningxia, Guizhou and Qinghai appear to represent secondary introductions originating from other Chinese provinces. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological invasion; exotic introduction; genetic differentiation; genetic structure biological invasion; exotic introduction; genetic differentiation; genetic structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, R.-R.; Zhang, W.-P.; Wu, H.-T.; Zhang, R.-M.; Zhou, H.-X.; Pan, H.-P.; Zhang, Y.-J.; Brown, J.K.; Chu, D. Population Structure of the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), an Invasive Species from the Americas, 60 Years after Invading China. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13514-13528.

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