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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12558-12572; doi:10.3390/ijms150712558

The Critical Role of Membrane Cholesterol in Salmonella-Induced Autophagy in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
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Abstract

It was previously observed that plasma membrane cholesterol plays a critical role in the Salmonella-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent (PI3K)-dependent anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The PI3K/Akt pathway is associated with autophagy which has emerged as a critical mechanism of host defense against several intracellular bacterial pathogens. Plasma membrane contributes directly to the formation of early Atg16L1-positive autophagosome precursors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of plasma membrane cholesterol on the Salmonella-induced autophagy in IECs. By using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), it was demonstrated that disruption of membrane cholesterol by MBCD enhanced NOD2 and Atg16L1 proteins expression in membrane, and autophagic LC3II proteins expression and LC3 punctae in Salmonella-infected Caco-2 cells, which was counteracted by Atg16L1 siRNA. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) siRNA enhanced the Salmonella-induced activation of Akt in Caco-2 cells. However, inhibitors of Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) had no significant effect on Salmonella-induced autophagy Beclin 1 or LC3 proteins expression. In conclusion, our study suggests that cholesterol accumulation in the plasma membrane at the entry site of Salmonella results in the formation of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) and decreased autophagy. Our results offer mechanistic insights on the critical role of membrane cholesterol in the pathogenesis of Salmonella infection in intestinal epithelial cells and the therapeutic potential of its antagonists. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol; Salmonella; Intestine epithelia; autophagy cholesterol; Salmonella; Intestine epithelia; autophagy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, F.-C. The Critical Role of Membrane Cholesterol in Salmonella-Induced Autophagy in Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 12558-12572.

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