Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9594-9627; doi:10.3390/ijms15069594
Review

NOD-Like Receptors in Intestinal Homeostasis and Epithelial Tissue Repair

1email and 1,2,* email
Received: 20 March 2014; in revised form: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Transduction of Tissue Repair)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The intestinal epithelium constitutes a dynamic physical barrier segregating the luminal content from the underlying mucosal tissue. Following injury, the epithelial integrity is restored by rapid migration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) across the denuded area in a process known as wound healing. Hence, through a sequence of events involving restitution, proliferation and differentiation of IECs the gap is resealed and homeostasis reestablished. Relapsing damage followed by healing of the inflamed mucosa is a hallmark of several intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While several regulatory peptides, growth factors and cytokines stimulate restitution of the epithelial layer after injury, recent evidence in the field underscores the contribution of innate immunity in controlling this process. In particular, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) play critical roles in sensing the commensal microbiota, maintaining homeostasis, and regulating intestinal inflammation. Here, we review the process of intestinal epithelial tissue repair and we specifically focus on the impact of NLR-mediated signaling mechanisms involved in governing epithelial wound healing during disease.
Keywords: nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs); intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); wound healing; colitis; inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); inflammasome; growth factors; innate immunity; toll-like receptors (TLRs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parlato, M.; Yeretssian, G. NOD-Like Receptors in Intestinal Homeostasis and Epithelial Tissue Repair. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 9594-9627.

AMA Style

Parlato M, Yeretssian G. NOD-Like Receptors in Intestinal Homeostasis and Epithelial Tissue Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(6):9594-9627.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parlato, Marianna; Yeretssian, Garabet. 2014. "NOD-Like Receptors in Intestinal Homeostasis and Epithelial Tissue Repair." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 6: 9594-9627.

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