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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10479-10491; doi:10.3390/ijms150610479
Article

Estrogen Rapidly Enhances Incisional Pain of Ovariectomized Rats Primarily through the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor

1
,
2
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai 200080, China 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200090, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2014 / Revised: 10 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
(This article belongs to the collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
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Abstract

It has become increasingly apparent that the pain threshold of females and males varies in an estrogen dependent manner. To investigate the modulation of pain by estrogen and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. A total of 48 rats were ovariectomized (OVX). At 14 and 20 days after OVX, rats were divided into eight groups: groups 1–4 were administered drugs intravenously (IV); groups 5–8 were administered through intrathecal (IT) catheter. Hind paw incision was made in all animals to determine incisional pain. Paw withdraw threshold (PWT) was tested prior to and 24 h after incision. The test drugs were applied 24 h after the incision. Rats were either IV or IT administered with: 17-β-estradiol (E2), G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-selective agonist (G1), GPER-selective antagonist (G15) and E2 (G15 + E2), or solvent. Before and 30 min after IV drug administration and 20 min during the IT catheter administration, PWT was tested and recorded. 24 h after incisional surgery, the PWT of all rats significantly decreased. Both in the IV group and IT group: administration of E2 and G1 significantly decreased PWT. Neither administration of G15 + E2 nor solvent significantly changed PWT. Estrogen causes rapid reduction in the mechanical pain threshold of OVX rats via GPER.
Keywords: estrogen; estrogen receptors; G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER); incisional pain estrogen; estrogen receptors; G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER); incisional pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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An, G.; Li, W.; Yan, T.; Li, S. Estrogen Rapidly Enhances Incisional Pain of Ovariectomized Rats Primarily through the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 10479-10491.

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