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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8216-8234; doi:10.3390/ijms15058216

Efficient pH Dependent Drug Delivery to Target Cancer Cells by Gold Nanoparticles Capped with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

1
Department of Chemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500007, India
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien City 970, Taiwan
3
Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500007, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
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Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) for effective delivery to cancer cells. The carboxylic group of carboxymethyl chitosan interacts with the amino group of the doxorubicin (DOX) forming stable, non-covalent interactions on the surface of AuNPs. The carboxylic group ionizes at acidic pH, thereby releasing the drug effectively at acidic pH suitable to target cancer cells. The DOX loaded gold nanoparticles were effectively absorbed by cervical cancer cells compared to free DOX and their uptake was further increased at acidic conditions induced by nigericin, an ionophore that causes intracellular acidification. These results suggest that DOX loaded AuNPs with pH-triggered drug releasing properties is a novel nanotheraputic approach to overcome drug resistance in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan; gold nanoparticles; doxorubicin; pH-sensitive drug delivery; cellular uptake; cytotoxicity carboxymethyl chitosan; gold nanoparticles; doxorubicin; pH-sensitive drug delivery; cellular uptake; cytotoxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Madhusudhan, A.; Reddy, G.B.; Venkatesham, M.; Veerabhadram, G.; Kumar, D.A.; Natarajan, S.; Yang, M.-Y.; Hu, A.; Singh, S.S. Efficient pH Dependent Drug Delivery to Target Cancer Cells by Gold Nanoparticles Capped with Carboxymethyl Chitosan. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8216-8234.

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