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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6961-6973; doi:10.3390/ijms15046961

Systemic Immune Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles after Repeated Intratracheal Instillation in Rat

1
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China
2
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2014 / Revised: 6 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Abstract

The potential immune effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are raising concern. Our previous study verified that nano-TiO2 induce local immune response in lung tissue followed by intratracheal instillation administration. In this study, we aim to evaluate the systemic immune effects of nano-TiO2. Sprague Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with nano-TiO2 at doses of 0.5, 4, and 32 mg/kg body weight, micro-TiO2 with 32 mg/kg body weight and 0.9% NaCl, respectively. The exposure was conducted twice a week, for four consecutive weeks. Histopathological immune organs from exposed animals showed slight congestion in spleen, generally brown particulate deposition in cervical and axillary lymph node. Furthermore, immune function response was characterized by increased proliferation of T cells and B cells following mitogen stimulation and enhanced natural killer (NK) cell killing activity in spleen, accompanying by increased number of B cells in blood. No significant changes of Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and INF-γ) and Th2-type cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were observed. Intratracheal exposure to nano-TiO2 may be one of triggers to be responsible for the systemic immune response. Further study is needed to confirm long-lasting lymphocyte responses and the potential mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano-TiO2; systemic immune response; lymphocyte proliferation; cytokines nano-TiO2; systemic immune response; lymphocyte proliferation; cytokines
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, S.; Sui, J.; Yin, L.; Pu, Y.; Liang, G. Systemic Immune Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles after Repeated Intratracheal Instillation in Rat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 6961-6973.

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