Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6569-6591; doi:10.3390/ijms15046569

Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes?

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Received: 24 February 2014; in revised form: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) is a steroid hormone that has a range of physiological functions in skeletal and nonskeletal tissues, and can contribute to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In bone metabolism, vitamin D increases the plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus, regulates osteoblast and osteoclast the activity, and combats PTH hypersecretion, promoting bone formation and preventing/treating osteoporosis. This evidence is supported by most clinical studies, especially those that have included calcium and assessed the effects of vitamin D doses (≥800 IU/day) on bone mineral density. However, annual megadoses should be avoided as they impair bone health. Recent findings suggest that low serum vitamin D is the consequence (not the cause) of obesity and the results from randomized double-blind clinical trials are still scarce and inconclusive to establish the relationship between vitamin D, obesity, and T2DM. Nevertheless, there is evidence that vitamin D inhibits fat accumulation, increases insulin synthesis and preserves pancreatic islet cells, decreases insulin resistance and reduces hunger, favoring obesity and T2DM control. To date, there is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of vitamin D as a pathway to prevent and/or treat obesity and T2DM.
Keywords: vitamin D; osteoporosis; obesity; diabetes mellitus; PTH; bone mineral density; falls; fractures; osteoblasts; osteoclasts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cândido, F.G.; Bressan, J. Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 6569-6591.

AMA Style

Cândido FG, Bressan J. Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(4):6569-6591.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cândido, Flávia G.; Bressan, Josefina. 2014. "Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 4: 6569-6591.

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