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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6569-6591; doi:10.3390/ijms15046569

Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes?

Laboratory of Body Composition and Energy Metabolism, Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde-CCB II, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36570-900, Brazil
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Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) is a steroid hormone that has a range of physiological functions in skeletal and nonskeletal tissues, and can contribute to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In bone metabolism, vitamin D increases the plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus, regulates osteoblast and osteoclast the activity, and combats PTH hypersecretion, promoting bone formation and preventing/treating osteoporosis. This evidence is supported by most clinical studies, especially those that have included calcium and assessed the effects of vitamin D doses (≥800 IU/day) on bone mineral density. However, annual megadoses should be avoided as they impair bone health. Recent findings suggest that low serum vitamin D is the consequence (not the cause) of obesity and the results from randomized double-blind clinical trials are still scarce and inconclusive to establish the relationship between vitamin D, obesity, and T2DM. Nevertheless, there is evidence that vitamin D inhibits fat accumulation, increases insulin synthesis and preserves pancreatic islet cells, decreases insulin resistance and reduces hunger, favoring obesity and T2DM control. To date, there is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of vitamin D as a pathway to prevent and/or treat obesity and T2DM.
Keywords: vitamin D; osteoporosis; obesity; diabetes mellitus; PTH; bone mineral density; falls; fractures; osteoblasts; osteoclasts vitamin D; osteoporosis; obesity; diabetes mellitus; PTH; bone mineral density; falls; fractures; osteoblasts; osteoclasts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cândido, F.G.; Bressan, J. Vitamin D: Link between Osteoporosis, Obesity, and Diabetes? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 6569-6591.

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