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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5699-5716; doi:10.3390/ijms15045699
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Isolation, Bioactivity, and Production of ortho-Hydroxydaidzein and ortho-Hydroxygenistein

Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Daidzein and genistein are two major components of soy isoflavones. They exist abundantly in plants and possess multiple bioactivities. In contrast, ortho-hydroxydaidzein (OHD) and ortho-hydroxygenistein (OHG), including 6-hydroxydaidzein (6-OHD), 8-hydroxydaidzein (8-OHD), 3'-hydroxydaidzein (3'-OHD), 6-hydroxygenistein (6-OHG), 8-hydroxygenistein (8-OHG), and 3'-hydroxygenistein (3'-OHG), are rarely found in plants. Instead, they are usually isolated from fermented soybean foods or microbial fermentation broth feeding with soybean meal. Accordingly, the bioactivity of OHD and OHG has been investigated less compared to that of soy isoflavones. Recently, OHD and OHG were produced by genetically engineering microorganisms through gene cloning of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme systems. This success opens up bioactivity investigation and industrial applications of OHD and OHG in the future. This article reviews isolation of OHD and OHG from non-synthetic sources and production of the compounds by genetically modified microorganisms. Several bioactivities, such as anticancer and antimelanogenesis-related activities, of OHD and OHG, are also discussed.
Keywords: soy isoflavones; daidzein; genistein; hydroxylation; ortho-hydroxydaidzein; ortho-hydroxygenistein; bioactivity; isolation; production; cancer; melanogenesis soy isoflavones; daidzein; genistein; hydroxylation; ortho-hydroxydaidzein; ortho-hydroxygenistein; bioactivity; isolation; production; cancer; melanogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chang, T.-S. Isolation, Bioactivity, and Production of ortho-Hydroxydaidzein and ortho-Hydroxygenistein. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 5699-5716.

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