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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2573-2584; doi:10.3390/ijms15022573

The Proteasome Activator PA28γ, a Negative Regulator of p53, Is Transcriptionally Up-Regulated by p53

Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

PA28γ (also called REGγ, 11Sγ or PSME3) negatively regulates p53 activity by promoting its nuclear export and/or degradation. Here, using the RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) method, we identified the transcription start site of the PA28γ gene. Assessment with the luciferase assay demonstrated that the sequence −193 to +16 is the basal promoter. Three p53 binding sites were found within the PA28γ promoter utilizing a bioinformatics approach and were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotinylated DNA affinity precipitation experiments. The p53 protein promotes PA28γ transcription, and p53-stimulated transcription of PA28γ can be inhibited by PA28γ itself. Our results suggest that PA28γ and p53 form a negative feedback loop, which maintains the balance of p53 and PA28γ in cells.
Keywords: PA28γ; p53; promoter; transcription regulation; PSME3; negative feedback regulation PA28γ; p53; promoter; transcription regulation; PSME3; negative feedback regulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wan, Z.-X.; Yuan, D.-M.; Zhuo, Y.-M.; Yi, X.; Zhou, J.; Xu, Z.-X.; Zhou, J.-L. The Proteasome Activator PA28γ, a Negative Regulator of p53, Is Transcriptionally Up-Regulated by p53. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 2573-2584.

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