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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 21492-21504; doi:10.3390/ijms151121492

Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Upregulation Is Correlated with Prognostic Factors of Early-Stage Cervical Adenocarcinoma

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
2
Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan
3
Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
4
Graduate Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan
5
Innovative Research Center of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a unique nuclear/growth factor that plays an important role in the progression of different types of cancer. A total of 63 patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The expression of HDGF was significantly increased compared with adjacent non-tumor tissue samples (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated nuclear HDGF levels were correlated with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI; p < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (LNM; p < 0.001), recurrence (p < 0.001) and advanced grade (AG; p < 0.001). The growth of cervical cancer cells (Hela cells) was enhanced by HDGF treatment. The HDGF mRNA and protein level were significantly higher in malignant cervical cancer cells compared with primary ones. By adenovirus gene delivery, HDGF overexpression enhanced, whereas HDGF knockdown perturbed the tumorigenic behaviors of cervical cancer cells. HDGF overexpression is common in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and is involved in the carcinogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Cytoplasmic HDGF expression is strongly correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and recurrence, indicating that HDGF may serve as a novel prognostic marker for patients with Cx. View Full-Text
Keywords: early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx); hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF); metastasis early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx); hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF); metastasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tsai, C.-C.; Huang, S.-C.; Tai, M.H.; Chien, C.-C.C.; Huang, C.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C. Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Upregulation Is Correlated with Prognostic Factors of Early-Stage Cervical Adenocarcinoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 21492-21504.

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