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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 20321-20338; doi:10.3390/ijms151120321

Structural Biology of DNA (6-4) Photoproducts Formed by Ultraviolet Radiation and Interactions with Their Binding Proteins

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
2
Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Kanagawa 259-1292, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Exposure to the ultraviolet component of sunlight causes DNA damage, which subsequently leads to mutations, cellular transformation, and cell death. DNA photoproducts with (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone adducts are more mutagenic than cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These lesions must be repaired because of the high mutagenic potential of (6-4) photoproducts. We here reviewed the structures of (6-4) photoproducts, particularly the detailed structures of the (6-4) lesion and (6-4) lesion-containing double-stranded DNA. We also focused on interactions with their binding proteins such as antibody Fabs, (6-4) photolyase, and nucleotide excision repair protein. The (6-4) photoproducts that bound to these proteins had common structural features: The 5'-side thymine and 3'-side pyrimidone bases of the T(6-4)T segment were in half-chair and planar conformations, respectively, and both bases were positioned nearly perpendicularly to each other. Interactions with binding proteins showed that the DNA helices flanking the T(6-4)T segment were largely kinked, and the flipped-out T(6-4)T segment was recognized by these proteins. These proteins had distinctive binding-site structures that were appropriate for their functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA damage; DNA (6-4) photoproduct; ultraviolet light; nucleotide flipping; crystal structure; antigen-binding fragment; antibody; photolyase; nucleotide excision repair DNA damage; DNA (6-4) photoproduct; ultraviolet light; nucleotide flipping; crystal structure; antigen-binding fragment; antibody; photolyase; nucleotide excision repair
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yokoyama, H.; Mizutani, R. Structural Biology of DNA (6-4) Photoproducts Formed by Ultraviolet Radiation and Interactions with Their Binding Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 20321-20338.

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