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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 19634-19649; doi:10.3390/ijms151119634

OCT4 Expression and Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation Positively Correlate with Poor Prognosis in Human Breast Cancer

1,3,†
,
1,2,3,†,* , 1,3,†
,
1
,
1,3
,
1
and
1
1
Department of Pathology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
2
Department of Pathology, Tianjin Cancer Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060, China
3
Department of Pathology, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

To evaluate the prognostic value of OCT4 expression and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in human breast cancer, we examined OCT4 expression and VM formation using immunohistochemistry and CD31/PAS (periodic acid-schiff) double staining on 90 breast cancer specimens. All patients were followed up for five–149 months following surgery. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression model to assess the prognostic values. Results showed positive correlation between OCT4 expression and VM formation (p < 0.05). Both OCT4 expression and VM were also positively correlated with lymph node metastasis, higher histological grade, and Nottingham prognostic index (p < 0.05). Patients with OCT4 expression or VM formation exhibited poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) than OCT4-negative or VM-negative patients (p < 0.05). OCT4-positive/VM-positive patients also had the worst OS and DFS (p < 0.05). In multivariate survival analysis, VM, Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), and Her2 were independent prognostic factors related to OS and OCT4-positive/VM-positive patients, whereas NPI and Her2 were independent predictors of DFS. These results suggest that a combined OCT4 expression/VM could improve the prognostic judgment for breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: OCT4; vasculogenic mimicry; breast cancer OCT4; vasculogenic mimicry; breast cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, T.; Sun, B.; Zhao, X.; Li, Y.; Gu, Q.; Dong, X.; Liu, F. OCT4 Expression and Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation Positively Correlate with Poor Prognosis in Human Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 19634-19649.

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