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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18725-18741; doi:10.3390/ijms151018725

Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

1
Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Akademicki 17, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
2
Department and Institute of Pathology, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Ostrogórska 30, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
3
Department and Institute of Microbiology and Virology, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
4
Department of Oral Surgery, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Akademicki 17, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
5
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols)
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Abstract

Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeic acid; ethanol; squamous cell line SCC-25; MTT/LDH cytotoxicity assay; cell migration assay caffeic acid; ethanol; squamous cell line SCC-25; MTT/LDH cytotoxicity assay; cell migration assay
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dziedzic, A.; Kubina, R.; Kabała-Dzik, A.; Wojtyczka, R.D.; Morawiec, T.; Bułdak, R.J. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18725-18741.

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