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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18610-18622; doi:10.3390/ijms151018610

A Comprehensive Mixture of Tobacco Smoke Components Retards Orthodontic Tooth Movement via the Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis in a Rat Model

1
Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuha Hanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
2
Institute of Dental Research, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuha Hanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
3
Department of Chemistry, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuha Hanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Department of Orthodontics, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Cyu-ouku Otemae, Osaka 540-0008, Japan.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs) attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC) inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days. TSC administration effectively retarded tooth movement since day 4. Histological evaluation disclosed that tooth movement induced bone resorption at two sites: in the bone marrow and the peripheral bone near the root. TSC administration significantly reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells in the bone marrow cavity of the PC-treated dentition. An in vitro study indicated that the inhibitory effects of TSCs on osteoclastogenesis seemed directed more toward preosteoclasts than osteoblasts. These results indicate that the comprehensive mixture of TSCs might be a useful tool for detailed verification of the adverse effects of tobacco smoke, possibly contributing to the development of reliable treatments in various fields associated with bone resorption. View Full-Text
Keywords: tobacco; bone; osteoclast; tooth movement; orthodontics; nicotine tobacco; bone; osteoclast; tooth movement; orthodontics; nicotine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nagaie, M.; Nishiura, A.; Honda, Y.; Fujiwara, S.-I.; Matsumoto, N. A Comprehensive Mixture of Tobacco Smoke Components Retards Orthodontic Tooth Movement via the Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis in a Rat Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 18610-18622.

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