Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 850-877; doi:10.3390/ijms15010850
Article

Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats

1,2
, 3,†
, 3
, 4
, 3
 and 3,*
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilms: Extracellular Bastions of Bacteria)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1101 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Microspatial arrangements of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in surface microbial mats (~1.5 mm) forming open marine stromatolites were investigated. Previous research revealed three different mat types associated with these stromatolites, each with a unique petrographic signature. Here we focused on comparing “non-lithifying” (Type-1) and “lithifying” (Type-2) mats. Our results revealed three major trends: (1) Molecular typing using the dsrA probe revealed a shift in the SRM community composition between Type-1 and Type-2 mats. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to confocal scanning-laser microscopy (CSLM)-based image analyses, and 35SO42−-silver foil patterns showed that SRM were present in surfaces of both mat types, but in significantly (p < 0.05) higher abundances in Type-2 mats. Over 85% of SRM cells in the top 0.5 mm of Type-2 mats were contained in a dense 130 µm thick horizontal layer comprised of clusters of varying sizes; (2) Microspatial mapping revealed that locations of SRM and CaCO3 precipitation were significantly correlated (p < 0.05); (3) Extracts from Type-2 mats contained acylhomoserine-lactones (C4- ,C6- ,oxo-C6,C7- ,C8- ,C10- ,C12- , C14-AHLs) involved in cell-cell communication. Similar AHLs were produced by SRM mat-isolates. These trends suggest that development of a microspatially-organized SRM community is closely-associated with the hallmark transition of stromatolite surface mats from a non-lithifying to a lithifying state.
Keywords: biofilms; EPS; microbial mats; microspatial; sulfate-reducing microorganisms; dsrA probe; chemical signals; CaCO3; AHLs; 35SO42− silver-foil
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Petrisor, A.I.; Szyjka, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Visscher, P.T.; Norman, R.S.; Decho, A.W. Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 850-877.

AMA Style

Petrisor AI, Szyjka S, Kawaguchi T, Visscher PT, Norman RS, Decho AW. Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(1):850-877.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petrisor, Alexandru I.; Szyjka, Sandra; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Visscher, Pieter T.; Norman, Robert S.; Decho, Alan W. 2014. "Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 1: 850-877.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert