Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18350-18361; doi:10.3390/ijms140918350
Article

Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

1,2email, 1,2email, 1,2,3email and 1,2,3,* email
Received: 8 August 2013; in revised form: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.
Keywords: ionic liquid/water biphasic system; protein extraction; zwitterion; hydrophobicity; recovering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ito, Y.; Kohno, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Ohno, H. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18350-18361.

AMA Style

Ito Y, Kohno Y, Nakamura N, Ohno H. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):18350-18361.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki. 2013. "Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 18350-18361.

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