Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
Department of Medical Engineering, National Defense Medical College 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2013; in revised form: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Abstract: Applications of laser therapy, including low-level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have been proven to be beneficial and relatively less invasive therapeutic modalities for numerous diseases and disease conditions. Using specific types of laser irradiation, specific cellular activities can be induced. Because multiple cellular signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in cells exposed to lasers, understanding the molecular responses within cells will aid in the development of laser therapies. In order to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of LLLT and PDT-related responses, it will be useful to characterize the specific expression of miRNAs and proteins. Such analyses will provide an important source for new applications of laser therapy, as well as for the development of individualized treatments. Although several miRNAs should be up- or down-regulated upon stimulation by LLLT, phototherapy and PDT, very few published studies address the effect of laser therapy on miRNA expression. In this review, we focus on LLLT, phototherapy and PDT as representative laser therapies and discuss the effects of these therapies on miRNA expression.
Keywords: low-level laser therapy (LLLT); phototherapy; photodynamic therapy (PDT); miRNA
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kushibiki, T.; Hirasawa, T.; Okawa, S.; Ishihara, M. Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13542-13558.
Kushibiki T, Hirasawa T, Okawa S, Ishihara M. Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13542-13558.
Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya. 2013. "Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13542-13558.