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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12620-12649; doi:10.3390/ijms140612620
Review

The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers

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Received: 23 April 2013; in revised form: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
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Abstract: In order to successfully cure patients with prostate cancer (PCa), it is important to detect the disease at an early stage. The existing clinical biomarkers for PCa are not ideal, since they cannot specifically differentiate between those patients who should be treated immediately and those who should avoid over-treatment. Current screening techniques lack specificity, and a decisive diagnosis of PCa is based on prostate biopsy. Although PCa screening is widely utilized nowadays, two thirds of the biopsies performed are still unnecessary. Thus the discovery of non-invasive PCa biomarkers remains urgent. In recent years, the utilization of urine has emerged as an attractive option for the non-invasive detection of PCa. Moreover, a great improvement in high-throughput “omic” techniques has presented considerable opportunities for the identification of new biomarkers. Herein, we will review the most significant urine biomarkers described in recent years, as well as some future prospects in that field.
Keywords: prostate cancer; biomarker; urine; non-invasive prostate cancer; biomarker; urine; non-invasive
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rigau, M.; Olivan, M.; Garcia, M.; Sequeiros, T.; Montes, M.; Colás, E.; Llauradó, M.; Planas, J.; de Torres, I.; Morote, J.; Cooper, C.; Reventós, J.; Clark, J.; Doll, A. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12620-12649.

AMA Style

Rigau M, Olivan M, Garcia M, Sequeiros T, Montes M, Colás E, Llauradó M, Planas J, de Torres I, Morote J, Cooper C, Reventós J, Clark J, Doll A. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12620-12649.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rigau, Marina; Olivan, Mireia; Garcia, Marta; Sequeiros, Tamara; Montes, Melania; Colás, Eva; Llauradó, Marta; Planas, Jacques; de Torres, Inés; Morote, Juan; Cooper, Colin; Reventós, Jaume; Clark, Jeremy; Doll, Andreas. 2013. "The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12620-12649.



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