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The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers
Research Unit in Biomedicine and Translational Oncology, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute and Hospital and Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Urology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Pathology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Cancer Genetics, University of East Anglia, Norwich Norfolk, NR4 7TJ, UK
Department of Basic Sciences, International University of Catalonia, 08017 Barcelona, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2013; in revised form: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Abstract: In order to successfully cure patients with prostate cancer (PCa), it is important to detect the disease at an early stage. The existing clinical biomarkers for PCa are not ideal, since they cannot specifically differentiate between those patients who should be treated immediately and those who should avoid over-treatment. Current screening techniques lack specificity, and a decisive diagnosis of PCa is based on prostate biopsy. Although PCa screening is widely utilized nowadays, two thirds of the biopsies performed are still unnecessary. Thus the discovery of non-invasive PCa biomarkers remains urgent. In recent years, the utilization of urine has emerged as an attractive option for the non-invasive detection of PCa. Moreover, a great improvement in high-throughput “omic” techniques has presented considerable opportunities for the identification of new biomarkers. Herein, we will review the most significant urine biomarkers described in recent years, as well as some future prospects in that field.
Keywords: prostate cancer; biomarker; urine; non-invasive
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Rigau, M.; Olivan, M.; Garcia, M.; Sequeiros, T.; Montes, M.; Colás, E.; Llauradó, M.; Planas, J.; de Torres, I.; Morote, J.; Cooper, C.; Reventós, J.; Clark, J.; Doll, A. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12620-12649.
Rigau M, Olivan M, Garcia M, Sequeiros T, Montes M, Colás E, Llauradó M, Planas J, de Torres I, Morote J, Cooper C, Reventós J, Clark J, Doll A. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12620-12649.
Rigau, Marina; Olivan, Mireia; Garcia, Marta; Sequeiros, Tamara; Montes, Melania; Colás, Eva; Llauradó, Marta; Planas, Jacques; de Torres, Inés; Morote, Juan; Cooper, Colin; Reventós, Jaume; Clark, Jeremy; Doll, Andreas. 2013. "The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12620-12649.