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Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water
Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744, Korea
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-742, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Abstract: In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth.
Keywords: β-carotene; ascorbic acid; deep-sea water; immune activity; Spirulina maxima
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Choi, W.Y.; Kang, D.H.; Lee, H.Y. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12205-12221.
Choi WY, Kang DH, Lee HY. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):12205-12221.
Choi, Woon Y.; Kang, Do H.; Lee, Hyeon Y. 2013. "Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 12205-12221.