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Peptide Induced Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate on Wrinkle Patterned Substrate: Implications for Chitin Formation in Molluscs
Program Division "Biomineralization", INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials gGmbH, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Program Division "Innovative Electron Microscopy", INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials gGmbH, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
Present address: Department Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, UP, India
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2013; in revised form: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 21 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Abstract: We here present the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate under the influence of synthetic peptides on topographically patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates, which have a controlled density of defects between the wrinkles. Experiments with two lysine-rich peptides derived from the extracellular conserved domain E22 of the mollusc chitin synthase Ar-CS1, AKKKKKAS (AS8) and EEKKKKKES (ES9) on these substrates showed their influence on the calcium carbonate morphology. A transition from polycrystalline composites to single crystalline phases was achieved with the peptide AS8 by changing the pH of the buffer solution. We analyzed three different pH values as previous experiments showed that E22 interacts with aragonite biominerals more strongly at pH 7.75 than at pH 9.0. At any given pH, crystals appeared in characteristic morphologies only on wrinkled substrates, and did not occur on the flat, wrinkle-free PDMS substrate. These results suggest that these wrinkled substrates could be useful for controlling the morphologies of other mineral/peptide and mineral/protein composites. In nature, these templates are formed enzymatically by glycosyltransferases containing pH-sensitive epitopes, similar to the peptides investigated here. Our in vitro test systems may be useful to gain understanding of the formation of distinct 3D morphologies in mollusc shells in response to local pH shifts during the mineralization of organic templates.
Keywords: wrinkle substrate; peptide; crystal; pH; composites; chitin synthase; mollusc shell
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sengupta Ghatak, A.; Koch, M.; Guth, C.; Weiss, I.M. Peptide Induced Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate on Wrinkle Patterned Substrate: Implications for Chitin Formation in Molluscs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11842-11860.
Sengupta Ghatak A, Koch M, Guth C, Weiss IM. Peptide Induced Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate on Wrinkle Patterned Substrate: Implications for Chitin Formation in Molluscs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11842-11860.
Sengupta Ghatak, Anindita; Koch, Marcus; Guth, Christina; Weiss, Ingrid M. 2013. "Peptide Induced Crystallization of Calcium Carbonate on Wrinkle Patterned Substrate: Implications for Chitin Formation in Molluscs." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11842-11860.