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Genome-Wide Investigation of Multifocal and Unifocal Prostate Cancer — Are They Genetically Different?
Prostate Center, Department of Urology, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebaeude 1A, Muenster D-48149, Germany
Center for Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebaeude 1A, Muenster D-48149, Germany
Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebaeude D3, Domagkstrasse 3, Muenster D-48149, Germany
Gerhard-Domagk Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Muenster, Domagkstrasse 17, Muenster D-48149, Germany
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, Hannover D-30625, Germany
Institute of Pathology, Klinikum Osnabrueck, Am Finkenhuegel 1, Osnabrueck D-49076, Germany
Institute of Pathology, Saarbrücken-Rastpfuhl, Rheinstrasse 2, Saarbrücken D-66113, Germany
Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Center, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015-CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Urology, Erasmus Medical Center, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015-CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Clinic Schleswig-Holsteins, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 3, Haus 17, Kiel D-24105, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2013; in revised form: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 3 June 2013
Abstract: Prostate cancer is widely observed to be biologically heterogeneous. Its heterogeneity is manifested histologically as multifocal prostate cancer, which is observed more frequently than unifocal prostate cancer. The clinical and prognostic significance of either focal cancer type is not fully established. To investigate prostate cancer heterogeneity, the genetic profiles of multifocal and unifocal prostate cancers were compared. Here, we report observations deduced from tumor-tumor comparison of copy number alteration data of both focal categories. Forty-one fresh frozen prostate cancer foci from 14 multifocal prostate cancers and eight unifocal prostate cancers were subjected to copy number variation analysis with the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarray tool. With the investigated cases, tumors obtained from a single prostate exhibited different genetic profiles of variable degrees. Further comparison identified no distinct genetic pattern or signatures specific to multifocal or unifocal prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that samples obtained from multiple sites of a single unifocal prostate cancer show as much genetic heterogeneity and variability as separate tumors obtained from a single multifocal prostate cancer.
Keywords: prostate cancer; multifocal; unifocal; copy number variation; heterogeneity; affymetrix
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Ibeawuchi, C.; Schmidt, H.; Voss, R.; Titze, U.; Abbas, M.; Neumann, J.; Eltze, E.; Hoogland, A.M.; Jenster, G.; Brandt, B.; Semjonow, A. Genome-Wide Investigation of Multifocal and Unifocal Prostate Cancer — Are They Genetically Different? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 11816-11829.
Ibeawuchi C, Schmidt H, Voss R, Titze U, Abbas M, Neumann J, Eltze E, Hoogland AM, Jenster G, Brandt B, Semjonow A. Genome-Wide Investigation of Multifocal and Unifocal Prostate Cancer — Are They Genetically Different? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):11816-11829.
Ibeawuchi, Chinyere; Schmidt, Hartmut; Voss, Reinhard; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Neumann, Joerg; Eltze, Elke; Hoogland, Agnes M.; Jenster, Guido; Brandt, Burkhard; Semjonow, Axel. 2013. "Genome-Wide Investigation of Multifocal and Unifocal Prostate Cancer — Are They Genetically Different?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 11816-11829.