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Transgenerational, Dynamic Methylation of Stomata Genes in Response to Low Relative Humidity
School of Biological Sciences, Philip Lyle Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6BX, UK
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Edward Llywd Building, University of Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DA, UK
Current Affiliation: Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, Plant Genomics Centre, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB1 Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Current Affiliation: Plant Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Faculty of Sciences, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB1 Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia;
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 9 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Abstract: Transgenerational inheritance of abiotic stress-induced epigenetic modifications in plants has potential adaptive significance and might condition the offspring to improve the response to the same stress, but this is at least partly dependent on the potency, penetrance and persistence of the transmitted epigenetic marks. We examined transgenerational inheritance of low Relative Humidity-induced DNA methylation for two gene loci in the stomatal developmental pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana and the abundance of associated short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Heritability of low humidity-induced methylation was more predictable and penetrative at one locus (SPEECHLESS, entropy ≤ 0.02; χ2 < 0.001) than the other (FAMA, entropy ≤ 0.17; χ2 ns). Methylation at SPEECHLESS correlated positively with the continued presence of local siRNAs (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.013) which, however, could be disrupted globally in the progeny under repeated stress. Transgenerational methylation and a parental low humidity-induced stomatal phenotype were heritable, but this was reversed in the progeny under repeated treatment in a previously unsuspected manner.
Keywords: environmental epigenetics; transgenerational methylation; water stress; siRNAs; stomata; SPEECHLESS; FAMA
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Tricker, P.J.; López, C.M.R.; Gibbings, G.; Hadley, P.; Wilkinson, M.J. Transgenerational, Dynamic Methylation of Stomata Genes in Response to Low Relative Humidity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 6674-6689.
Tricker PJ, López CMR, Gibbings G, Hadley P, Wilkinson MJ. Transgenerational, Dynamic Methylation of Stomata Genes in Response to Low Relative Humidity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(4):6674-6689.
Tricker, Penny J.; López, Carlos M.R.; Gibbings, George; Hadley, Paul; Wilkinson, Mike J. 2013. "Transgenerational, Dynamic Methylation of Stomata Genes in Response to Low Relative Humidity." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 4: 6674-6689.