Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 4419-4431; doi:10.3390/ijms14034419
Review

The Apolipoprotein M–Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis: Biological Relevance in Lipoprotein Metabolism, Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis

Received: 5 December 2012; in revised form: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 25 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a plasma apolipoprotein that mainly associates with high-density lipoproteins. Hence, most studies on apoM so far have investigated its effect on and association with lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. The insight into apoM biology recently took a major turn. ApoM was identified as a carrier of the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P activates five different G-protein-coupled receptors, known as the S1P-receptors 1–5 and, hence, affects a wide range of biological processes, such as lymphocyte trafficking, angiogenesis, wound repair and even virus suppression and cancer. The ability of apoM to bind S1P is due to a lipophilic binding pocket within the lipocalin structure of the apoM molecule. Mice overexpressing apoM have increased plasma S1P concentrations, whereas apoM-deficient mice have decreased S1P levels. ApoM-S1P is able to activate the S1P-receptor-1, affecting the function of endothelial cells, and apoM-deficient mice display impaired endothelial permeability in the lung. This review will focus on the putative biological roles of the new apoM–S1P axis in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, lipid disorders and atherosclerosis.
Keywords: apolipoprotein M; sphingosine-1-phosphate; atherosclerosis; lipoprotein metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arkensteijn, B.W.C.; Berbée, J.F.P.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Nielsen, L.B.; Christoffersen, C. The Apolipoprotein M–Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis: Biological Relevance in Lipoprotein Metabolism, Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 4419-4431.

AMA Style

Arkensteijn BWC, Berbée JFP, Rensen PCN, Nielsen LB, Christoffersen C. The Apolipoprotein M–Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis: Biological Relevance in Lipoprotein Metabolism, Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(3):4419-4431.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arkensteijn, Bas W.C.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.; Nielsen, Lars B.; Christoffersen, Christina. 2013. "The Apolipoprotein M–Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis: Biological Relevance in Lipoprotein Metabolism, Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 3: 4419-4431.

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