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Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus
Medical Course of Cariri, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará 63180-970, Brazil
Northeast Network on Biotechnology (RENORBIO), Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Maceió, Alagoas 57072-900, Brazil
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Reactivity, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas (LRC/ICBS/UFAL), Maceió, Alagoas 57072-900, Brazil
Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas (FANUT/UFAL), Maceió, Alagoas 57072-900, Brazil
Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas (IQB/UFAL), Maceió, Alagoas 57072-900, Brazil
National Institute for Science and Technology (INCT)–Bioanalysis, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
Laboratory of Nutrition in Cardiology and Comorbidities, Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas (NUTRICARDIO/FANUT/UFAL), Maceió, Alagoas 57072-960, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2012; in revised form: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
Abstract: The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its increasing incidence worldwide, coupled with several complications observed in its carriers, have become a public health issue of great relevance. Chronic hyperglycemia is the main feature of such a disease, being considered the responsible for the establishment of micro and macrovascular complications observed in diabetes. Several efforts have been directed in order to better comprehend the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the course of this endocrine disease. Recently, numerous authors have suggested that excess generation of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a key component in the development of complications invoked by hyperglycemia. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these reactive species result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, leading different research groups to search for biomarkers which would be capable of a proper and accurate measurement of the oxidative stress (OS) in diabetic patients, especially in the presence of chronic complications. In the face of this scenario, the present review briefly addresses the role of hyperglycemia in OS, considering basic mechanisms and their effects in diabetes mellitus, describes some of the more commonly used biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative damage and includes selected examples of studies which evaluated OS biomarkers in patients with diabetes, pointing to the relevance of such biological components in general oxidative stress status of diabetes mellitus carriers.
Keywords: biomarkers; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; oxidative stress; reactive nitrogen species; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style
de M. Bandeira, S.; da Fonseca, L.J.S.; da S. Guedes, G.; Rabelo, L.A.; Goulart, M.O.F.; Vasconcelos, S.M.L. Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 3265-3284.
de M. Bandeira S, da Fonseca LJS, da S. Guedes G, Rabelo LA, Goulart MOF, Vasconcelos SML. Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):3265-3284.
de M. Bandeira, Suziy; da Fonseca, Lucas J.S.; da S. Guedes, Glaucevane; Rabelo, Luíza A.; Goulart, Marília O.F.; Vasconcelos, Sandra M.L. 2013. "Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 3265-3284.