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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 3265-3284; doi:10.3390/ijms14023265
Review

Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus

1,2,†
, 3,†
, 2,3,4,†
, 2,3,†
, 2,5,6,†
 and 4,7,†,*
Received: 7 October 2012; in revised form: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
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Abstract: The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its increasing incidence worldwide, coupled with several complications observed in its carriers, have become a public health issue of great relevance. Chronic hyperglycemia is the main feature of such a disease, being considered the responsible for the establishment of micro and macrovascular complications observed in diabetes. Several efforts have been directed in order to better comprehend the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the course of this endocrine disease. Recently, numerous authors have suggested that excess generation of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a key component in the development of complications invoked by hyperglycemia. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of these reactive species result in vascular dysfunction, damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, leading different research groups to search for biomarkers which would be capable of a proper and accurate measurement of the oxidative stress (OS) in diabetic patients, especially in the presence of chronic complications. In the face of this scenario, the present review briefly addresses the role of hyperglycemia in OS, considering basic mechanisms and their effects in diabetes mellitus, describes some of the more commonly used biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative damage and includes selected examples of studies which evaluated OS biomarkers in patients with diabetes, pointing to the relevance of such biological components in general oxidative stress status of diabetes mellitus carriers.
Keywords: biomarkers; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; oxidative stress; reactive nitrogen species; reactive oxygen species biomarkers; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; oxidative stress; reactive nitrogen species; reactive oxygen species
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

de M. Bandeira, S.; da Fonseca, L.J.S.; da S. Guedes, G.; Rabelo, L.A.; Goulart, M.O.F.; Vasconcelos, S.M.L. Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 3265-3284.

AMA Style

de M. Bandeira S, da Fonseca LJS, da S. Guedes G, Rabelo LA, Goulart MOF, Vasconcelos SML. Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):3265-3284.

Chicago/Turabian Style

de M. Bandeira, Suziy; da Fonseca, Lucas J.S.; da S. Guedes, Glaucevane; Rabelo, Luíza A.; Goulart, Marília O.F.; Vasconcelos, Sandra M.L. 2013. "Oxidative Stress as an Underlying Contributor in the Development of Chronic Complications in Diabetes Mellitus." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 3265-3284.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert