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Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila I-67100, Italy
Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila I-67100, Italy
PCB_Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology (UTOX-PCB), Scientific Park of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
Immunotoxicology and Allergy Unit, Ageing Research Center, Department of Medicine and Science of Ageing, University "G. D'Annunzio" of Chieti Pescara, Chieti I-66013, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 1 February 2013
Abstract: Owing to their radical scavenging and UV-filtering properties, ceria nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) are currently used for various applications, including as catalysts in diesel particulate filters. Because of their ability to filter UV light, CeO2-NPs have garnered significant interest in the medical field and, consequently, are poised for use in various applications. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of short-term (24 h) and long-term (10 days) CeO2-NP exposure to A549, CaCo2 and HepG2 cell lines. Cytotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 μg/mL to 5000 μg/mL, whereas genotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 μg/mL to 5000 μg/mL. In vitro assays showed almost no short-term exposure toxicity on any of the tested cell lines. Conversely, long-term CeO2-NP exposure proved toxic for all tested cell lines. NP genotoxicity was detectable even at 24-h exposure. HepG2 was the most sensitive cell line overall; however, the A549 line was most sensitive to the lowest concentration tested. Moreover, the results confirmed the ceria nanoparticles’ capacity to protect cells when they are exposed to well-known oxidants such as H2O2. A Comet assay was performed in the presence of both H2O2 and CeO2-NPs. When hydrogen peroxide was maintained at 25 μM, NPs at 0.5 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL protected the cells from oxidative damage. Thus, the NPs prevented H2O2-induced genotoxic damage.
Keywords: ceria nanoparticles; short-term exposure cytotoxicity; long-term exposure cytotoxicity; genotoxicity
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De Marzi, L.; Monaco, A.; De Lapuente, J.; Ramos, D.; Borras, M.; Di Gioacchino, M.; Santucci, S.; Poma, A. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 3065-3077.
De Marzi L, Monaco A, De Lapuente J, Ramos D, Borras M, Di Gioacchino M, Santucci S, Poma A. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):3065-3077.
De Marzi, Laura; Monaco, Antonina; De Lapuente, Joaquin; Ramos, David; Borras, Miquel; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Santucci, Sandro; Poma, Anna. 2013. "Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 3065-3077.