Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 2808-2831; doi:10.3390/ijms14022808
Review

Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

*  and
Received: 20 December 2012; in revised form: 24 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 29 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [229 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs) in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD) or mass detector (MS), are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed.
Keywords: milk fat; phospholipids; sphingolipids; plasmalogens milk fat; phospholipids; sphingolipids; plasmalogens
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Contarini, G.; Povolo, M. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 2808-2831.

AMA Style

Contarini G, Povolo M. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(2):2808-2831.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Contarini, Giovanna; Povolo, Milena. 2013. "Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 2: 2808-2831.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert