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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24706-24725; doi:10.3390/ijms141224706
Review

Multidrug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells in Neuroblastoma and Hepatoblastoma

1,* , 2
,
3
 and
3,*
1 Liver Research Unit, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome 00165, Italy 2 Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China 3 Department of Oncohematology, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome 00165, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
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Abstract

Chemotherapy is one of the major modalities in treating cancers. However, its effectiveness is limited by the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR). Several mechanisms could explain the up-regulation of MDR genes/proteins in cancer after chemotherapy. It is known that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a role as master regulators. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate some traits of CSCs may help design efficient strategies to overcome chemoresistance. Different CSC phenotypes have been identified, including those found in some pediatric malignancies. As solid tumors in children significantly differ from those observed in adults, this review aims at providing an overview of the mechanistic relationship between MDR and CSCs in common solid tumors, and, in particular, focuses on clinical as well as experimental evidence of the relations between CSCs and MDR in neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. Finally, some novel approaches, such as concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors governing the stemness of CSCs, as well as nanoparticle-based approaches will also be briefly addressed.
Keywords: cancer stem cells; multidrug resistance; neuroblastoma; hepatoblastoma cancer stem cells; multidrug resistance; neuroblastoma; hepatoblastoma
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Alisi, A.; Cho, W.C.; Locatelli, F.; Fruci, D. Multidrug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells in Neuroblastoma and Hepatoblastoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24706-24725.

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