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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22721-22740; doi:10.3390/ijms141122721
Article

Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 5
1 Division of Molecular Genetics Research, Life Science Research Center, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan 2 Department of Oral Morphology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8525, Japan 3 Noto Marine Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Ogi, Noto-cho, Ishikawa 927-0553, Japan 4 Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80, Kodatsuno, Kanazawa 920-0942, Japan 5 Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Although low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to enhance bone fracture healing, the underlying mechanism of LIPUS remains to be fully elucidated. Here, to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying cellular responses to LIPUS, we investigated gene expression profiles in mouse MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells exposed to LIPUS using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and computational gene expression analysis tools. Although treatment of the cells with a single 20-min LIPUS (1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm2) did not affect the cell growth or alkaline phosphatase activity, the treatment significantly increased the mRNA level of Bglap. Microarray analysis demonstrated that 38 genes were upregulated and 37 genes were downregulated by 1.5-fold or more in the cells at 24-h post-treatment. Ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the gene network U (up) contained many upregulated genes that were mainly associated with bone morphology in the category of biological functions of skeletal and muscular system development and function. Moreover, the biological function of the gene network D (down), which contained downregulated genes, was associated with gene expression, the cell cycle and connective tissue development and function. These results should help to further clarify the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the LIPUS response in osteoblast cells.
Keywords: low-intensity pulsed ultrasound; osteoblast; microarray; gene expression; gene network low-intensity pulsed ultrasound; osteoblast; microarray; gene expression; gene network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tabuchi, Y.; Sugahara, Y.; Ikegame, M.; Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.-I.; Kondo, T. Genes Responsive to Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in MC3T3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 22721-22740.

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