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Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Faculty of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Nutrition, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 July 2013; in revised form: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013
Abstract: Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers; Methods: 441 occupational drivers and 432 age- and sex-stratified matched counterpart controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. Cardiovascular disease risk was evaluated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS); Results: A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (43.1% vs. 25.5%, p < 0.001), albuminuria (12.0% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and high FRS risk ≥ 10% of 10-year risk (46.9% vs. 35.2%, p < 0.001) was found in occupational drivers compared with their counterpart controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that old age, a history of diabetes, gout and betel nut chewing, less exercise and albuminuria (odds ratio [OR], 2.75; p = 0.01) were risk factors for MetS, while a history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension, and MetS (OR, 2.28; p = 0.01) were risk factors for albuminuria in occupational drivers; Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that MetS and albuminuria were public health problems in occupational drivers. An education program for promoting healthy lifestyle and a regular occupational health visit for early detection and interventions should be established.
Keywords: occupational driver; metabolic syndrome; albuminuria; Framingham Risk Score
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, S.-C.; Chang, J.-M.; Lin, M.-Y.; Hou, M.-L.; Tsai, J.-C.; Hwang, S.-J.; Chen, H.-C. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 21997-22010.
Chen S-C, Chang J-M, Lin M-Y, Hou M-L, Tsai J-C, Hwang S-J, Chen H-C. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):21997-22010.
Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lin, Ming-Yen; Hou, Meng-Ling; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun. 2013. "Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Albuminuria with Cardiovascular Risk in Occupational Drivers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 21997-22010.